Scottish football may not get the attention that its neighbor south of the border does, but it is a compelling league full of iconic teams, compelling characters and a host of interesting facts. Manchester United cannot seem to get their formation and selection right. From players not playing in their preferred positions to a lack of attacking play, how should the team line up? Football can often be as entertaining away from the pitch than on it. The biggest transfers always generate a great deal of interest, but for every deal that goes through, there are many that fall just short Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. Some articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. Some articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. This is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. The most well-documented early European team was founded by activist Nettie Honeyball in England in It was named the British Ladies' Football Club. Nettie Honeyball is quoted, "I founded the association late last year , with the fixed resolve of proving to the world that women are not the 'ornamental and useless' creatures men have pictured.
I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation , and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially those which concern them most. However, the women's game was frowned upon by the British football associations, and continued without their support.
It has been suggested that this was motivated by a perceived threat to the 'masculinity' of the game. Women's football became popular on a large scale at the time of the First World War , when employment in heavy industry spurred the growth of the game, much as it had done for men fifty years earlier.
The team played in the first women's international matches in , against a team from Paris , France, in April, and also made up most of the England team against a Scottish Ladies XI in , and winning Despite being more popular than some men's football events one match saw a 53, strong crowd ,  women's football in England suffered a blow in when The Football Association outlawed the playing of the game on Association members' pitches, on the grounds that the game as played by women was distasteful.
Association football has been played by women since at least the time of the first recorded women's games in the late 19th century. The growth in women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both national and international level mirroring the male competitions. Women's football has faced many struggles. It had a "golden age" in the United Kingdom in the early s when crowds reached 50, at some matches;  this was stopped on 5 December when England's Football Association voted to ban the game from grounds used by its member clubs.
Association football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal between the posts and under the bar , thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game: The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart.
Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body notably, "heading" with the forehead  other than their hands or arms. During gameplay, players attempt to create goal-scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling , passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper.
Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted.
Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee for an infringement of the rules. After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals.
For example, the —06 season of the English Premier League produced an average of 2. Broadly, these include three main categories: Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to distinguish them from the goalkeeper. These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time.
For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination.
The number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders creates a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse creates a slower, more defensive style of play.
While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time. Defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager. There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines.
The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted.
The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players excluding substitutes , one of whom must be the goalkeeper.
Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team, which is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield non-goalkeeper players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws. The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards.
An athletic supporter and protective cup is highly recommended for male players by medical experts and professionals.
The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials. A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three in ninety minutes with each team being allowed one more if the game should go into extra-time, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches.
Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match.
A game is officiated by a referee , who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" Law 5 , and whose decisions are final.
The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise.
Goal line technology is used to measure if the whole ball has crossed the goal-line thereby determining if a goal has or hasn't been scored, this was brought in to prevent there being controversy. Video assistant referee VAR has also been increasingly introduced to assist officials through video replay to correct clear and obvious mistakes. There are four types of calls that can be reviewed: In the past the ball was made up of leather panels sewn together, with a latex bladder for pressurisation but modern balls at all levels of the game are now synthetic.
As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB , the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents followed by traditional units in brackets , though use of imperial units remains popular in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication or only partial metrication , such as Britain.
The longer boundary lines are touchlines , while the shorter boundaries on which the goals are placed are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line.
Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. In front of the goal is the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick.
Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs , goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks. A standard adult football match consists of two halves of 45 minutes each. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. There is usually a minute half-time break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time. This added time is called additional time in FIFA documents,   but is most commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time , while loss time can also be used as a synonym.
The duration of stoppage time is at the sole discretion of the referee. Stoppage time does not fully compensate for the time in which the ball is out of play , and a minute game typically involves about an hour of "effective playing time". In matches where a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time he intends to add. The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number.
The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee. Trailing 1—0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. In league competitions, games may end in a draw. In knockout competitions where a winner is required various methods may be employed to break such a deadlock; some competitions may invoke replays. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark" to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament.
Goals scored during extra time periods count towards the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score. In competitions using two-legged matches , each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses.
Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg they played away from home.
If the result is still equal, extra time and potentially a penalty shootout are required. In the late s and early s, the IFAB experimented with ways of creating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored golden goal , or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time silver goal.
Golden goal was used at the World Cup in and The first World Cup game decided by a golden goal was France 's victory over Paraguay in Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final of Euro Silver goal was used in Euro Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB.
Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee.
When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:. A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play.
The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. The referee may punish a player's or substitute's misconduct by a caution yellow card or dismissal red card. A second yellow card in the same game leads to a red card, which results in a dismissal.
A player given a yellow card is said to have been "booked", the referee writing the player's name in his official notebook. If a player has been dismissed, no substitute can be brought on in their place and the player may not participate in further play. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad.
In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.
Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. This is known as "playing an advantage".
Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play. The referee's decision in all on-pitch matters is considered final. Along with the general administration of the sport, football associations and competition organisers also enforce good conduct in wider aspects of the game, dealing with issues such as comments to the press, clubs' financial management, doping , age fraud and match fixing.
Most competitions enforce mandatory suspensions for players who are sent off in a game. Sanctions for such infractions may be levied on individuals or on to clubs as a whole. Penalties may include fines, points deductions in league competitions or even expulsion from competitions. For example, the English Football League deduct 12 points from any team that enters financial administration.
Teams that had forfeited a game or had been forfeited against would be awarded a technical loss or win. The recognised international governing body of football and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer is FIFA. Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are: National associations oversee football within individual countries.
These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, for example: This competition takes place every four years since with the exception of and tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II. Approximately — national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period. Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase.
The host nation's team is automatically entered as the 24th slot. There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since , except at the games in Los Angeles. Originally, the tournament was for amateurs only.
The countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe , where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs. Between and , 23 out of 27 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden gold in and bronze in , Denmark bronze in and silver in and Japan bronze in breaking their dominance.
Since male competitors must be under 23 years old, and since , players under 23 years old, with three over year old players, are allowed per squad. A women's tournament was added in ; in contrast to the men's event, full international sides without age restrictions play the women's Olympic tournament.
After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America.
The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season , normally comprising several divisions , in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Teams are placed into tables , placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament.
At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division. The teams finishing at the top of a country's league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season.
The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura Spanish for Opening and Closing , awarding a champion for each.
Some countries' top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller countries and lower divisions, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs. Football hooliganism is the term used to describe disorderly, violent or destructive behaviour perpetrated by spectators at football events.
Variants of football have been codified for reduced-sized teams i. Such games can have team sizes that vary from eleven-a-side, can use a limited or modified subset of the official rules, and can be self-officiated by the players. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Soccer disambiguation. This article is about the sport of association football. For other codes of football, see Football. The attacking player No. Names for association football.
History of association football. Children playing cuju in Song dynasty China. An episkyros player on an ancient stone carving at the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
For the rules of other football games, see Football. Laws of the Game association football. Association football positions , Formation association football , and Kit association football. Ball in and out of play. Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and dismissed from the game with a red card. Association football around the world.
List of association football competitions. Geography of association football and Geography of women's association football. Variants of association football and Street football. Association football portal Women's association football portal. The most recent changed was in , from 24 to Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 4 June A Comparative and Developmental Approach.
Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation.
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